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Definitions
(as related to the 475th M.P.E.G. Co.)

Definition - Service Unit
A service unit is a support unit as opposed to "combat" unit.   The role of a service unit is in support of the combat troops who are doing the actual battleground fighting.  Typical service units are those of the Quartermaster  Corps  (Supply),   Medical Corps  (behind the line hospitals),  Engineers (construction units),  and  Military Police Escort Guard Companies (guarding and transporting of enemy prisoners of war. See "Bibliography and Notes, 6.).

Definition - Military Police Escort Guard Company
A company consists of four "line" sections  and a "headquarters" section.   Each line section consists of three  squads  of  8 to 10  Privates  and Privates,  First Class under the leadership of a Corporal.  The section,    which  roughly  approximates  an  infantry  platoon,    is  lead  by  a  "buck"  sergeant.   The headquarters   section  is  comprised  of  various  administrative  elements  and  the  company  officers. Services include mess,  clerks,  supply, and transportation.   Clerks are under the immediate leadership of the First Sergeant, the ranking enlisted man in the company.  The mess sergeant has in his command
a first cook  and several other cooks.   The supply unit is under the aegis of the supply sergeant and an armorer-articifer.   Transportation consists of a motor pool sergeant, drivers,  and possibly a mechanic. The officer contingent consists of a captain and three lieutenants.    The usual number of enlisted men in such a company is 135. 

Definition - training of a Military Police Escort Guard Company.
The basic training of such a company first of all prepares the men and the unit to be Military Policemen.

Techniques  of  hand-to-hand  combat   and  police  methods  of  subduing  perpetrators  were  taught.  The use of the billy club in policing situations was imparted to the recruits.

Weapons training started with rifles.   In the instance of the 475th the rifles were  at different times either the  '98 Lee-Enfield or '03 Springfield. Never was this company issued the Garand M1. The Springfield was fired for record.  Bayonets were issued and bayonet training with straw-filled dummies was carried out.

Other weapons were fired for familiarization, not for record.  They included the 1911 Colt Pistol as well as  the  6  shot  revolver,  both .45 caliber.      The M1 carbine,  .30 caliber,  was also fired as were the Thompson Submachine Gun   and several varieties   of 12 gauge shotguns.   Eventually the Model 1897 pump shotgun with cooling fin was  the standard "riot" gun.   In addition training was received on the .30 caliber  light  machine  gun  and  the  Browning automatic rifle (B.A.R.).    Fragmentation hand grenades were  included  in the training  and each enlisted man was permitted  to pull the pin on one such grenade and  throw  it  in  the  stiff-armed overhand fashion prescribed by the Army.    Chemical warfare training consisted of classes,  use of the World War I type gas mask in both the "gas house"  and during tear gas "attacks"  from gas-generating  trucks during hikes.   When  we went overseas,  the new type gas masks were issued along with "protective" clothing. During the time of the Battle of the Bulge (December 1944) the company  was given training on .50 caliber heavy machine guns  and  the guard towers of P.W.E. #1 in Spring Hill, near Bourton-on-the-Hill, Cots., England were fitted with such weapons.
 

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